A kind of non-cancerous tumors especially seen in adults that derive from the pineal cells are
called Pineocytomas. They are non-invasive, slow-growing and homogeneous. In most cases
they develop at the center of the brain. It can be removed successfully with the help of
They are considered to be the most common intracranial tumors next to meningiomas, gliomas
and schwannomas. 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors are Pituitary Adenoma. Among the
pituitary adenomas, those smaller than 10 mm are called as microadenomas and those
exceeding 10 mm are macroadenomas.
Most of the Pituitary Adenomas are non-cancerous and slow-growing. Malignant pituitary
adenomas are very rarely seen. Adenomas are considered to be the most common disease that
affect the pituitary. They can be seen among children and more common among people in the
age group of 30s-40s. Most cases can be successfully cured with appropriate treatment options.
Signs and symptoms
- In Children: Headaches, bumping in objects placed on sides, visual difficulties etc.
- In adult females: Visual difficulties, irregularities in the menstrual cycles.
- In adult males: Loss of sexual desire, visual difficulties.
Other general signs and symptoms may vary according to the type of adenoma. Some of them
- Nausea or vomiting
- Headaches in the forehead area
- Sexual dysfunction and infertility
- Muscle weakness
- Unexplained weight gain or weight loss
- Early menopause
- Depression, fatigue
- Pain in the joints, Osteoporosis
- Easy bruising
- Growth problems
- Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Pineocytomas pituitary adenoma is better to
treat as soon as possible. Surgery is considered to be the best option and if
the patient does not posses any other complications.
Trans Nasal Endoscopic Surgery uses the
high definition optics and 4 hand techniques for the procedure. It is one of
the best methods for removing the tumor completely with minimum chance for
morbidity and because of the following factors, these procedure is considered
to be a best choice by most of the clinics and professionals:
recovery as the
patient is able to leave the hospital in
2-4 days after the surgery.
approach: It is chosen only when the Trans nasal
approach fails to achieve the goals as the tumor crosses the coronal
Radiation therapy is the treatment method
used in cases where the surgery and medication have proved to be ineffective to
cure the tumor. It can also be a choice if there is a small residual or
Stereotactic Radiosurgery (Gamma Knife and
Theis procedure is a combination of
external beam radiotherapy with a technique that focuses the radiation through
many different ports. Such procedure may evoke fewer injury to the tissues near
to the pituitary gland.
Bromocriptine and cabergoline are the most
prevalent agents used in medication therapy. Varied changes in the size of the
tumors can be seen in most of the Prolactinoma patients with medication
therapy. It can be also:
menstrual cycle and fertility in women
Bromocriptine can have side effects and
moderate doses are usually prescribed. Cabergoline is the long-acting oral
dopamine which has been approved for hyperprolactinema by the Food and Drug
Administration in USA. It has the fewer side effects when compared to that of
Bromocriptine and can be taken twice in a week. It is more effective in
patients whose prolactinomas are inresponsive to bromocriptine therapy.