It is one of the most common benign intracranial tumors that comprises of 10-15% of all the brain tumors. Still, there can be a very small percentage of malignant meningiomas. The membrane-like structures that surround the spinal cord and the brain are called meninges. Meningiomas develop in the meninges. They can be of different types such as:
Meningiomas are usually curable with Grade 0 to Grade 1 removal methods. The tumor may cause pressure on the spinal cord as well as the brain. Specific parts of the brain, nerves, or blood vessels surrounding the tumor may be affected by direct pressure from the tumor. Constant direct pressure may cause thickening of the adjacent bone or hyperostosis. In rare cases, it may even cause bone erosion. Meningiomas cannot be diagnosed until symptoms start to appear.
Common signs and symptoms of meningiomas are:
Meningiomas that occur in different locations may show different symptoms:
Flax and Parasagittal Meningioma:
Sphenoid wing Meningioma:
Oflactory Groove Meningioma:
Posterior fossa Meningioma:
Suprasellar or planum Meningioma:
Meningiomas are slow growing tumors and it is difficult to diagnose them until they start exerting pressure on the surrounding structures. The primary stage symptoms and signs may be confused with other medical conditions.
Common diagnostic tools are:
Main and best option is the complete Micro-surgical removal of the tumor. This may achieve the best cure. The main aim of the surgery is to remove the meningioma completely along with the dural attachment and infiltrated bone. Removing the tumor completely can be very risky when it has infiltrated the veins or brain tissue or has absorbed the small arteries. Even though the main goal of the surgery is to remove the tumor completely, patient’s safety is the first priority. If the complete removal possesses risk, it is better to leave some of the tomor unremoved. This will help in observing the growth with imaging tests. If there are any changes in residual tumor, the patient will be givem a sterotectic radiation therapy later on. Risk of bleeding can be decreases with preoperative embolization.
Patients may require observation after the surgery in cases such as:
The best possible result in adults can be predicted during the time of diagnosis itself. The prognosis can be better in younger adults. Better results can be achieved if the tumor is removed completely. It cannot be possible in all cases.
Authored By Dr. Manish Vaish
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