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Aknowledged on 2nd July 2020

Department of Nerosurgery

Department of Neurosurgery,Room No #580,
Max Super Speciality Hospital, Sector 1,
Vaishali, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201012
Open now : Open 24 hours
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Brain Tumor

A brain tumor is a collection, or mass, of abnormal cells in the brain. The cell grows into a tumor when a cell divides rapidly and its internal mechanism is damaged. A brain tumor can be primary or secondary depending upon its place of origin. A primary brain tumor begins in the brain while a secondary tumor starts elsewhere in the body and sends cancerous cells to the brain, causing secondary or metastatic brain tumor. Brain tumors can be either malignant (with cancer cells) or benign (without cancer cells). 

Cause of Brain Tumor

The exact cause of brain tumors is not clear and scientists are regularly trying to find the causative factor of brain tumor. 

Common Types Primary Brain Tumor:
  • Meningioma
  • Glioma
  • Astrocytoma
  • Glioblastoma
  • Oligodendroma
  • Ependymoma
  • Schwanoma
  • Neurofibroma
    • Medulloblastoma
    • Neuroblastoma
    • Teratoma
    • Angioma
    • Angiosarcoma
    • Pituitary Gland Tumor
    • Pineal Gland Tumor
Symptoms of Brain Tumor:

Although the symptoms of brain tumor vary according to its location but most of the patients complain of some or all of the following symptoms:

  • Headaches that may get severe in the morning.
  • Convulsions and seizures
  • Dizziness or loss of balance
  • Vomiting or nausea
  • Difficulty in speaking and thinking
  • Vision changes
  • Hearing changes
  • Disorientation and confusion
  • Personality changes
  • Paralysis or weakness in one part or one side of the body
Diagnosis of Brain Tumor

In addition to physical and neurological examination of the patient, following diagnostic tests can find out brain tumors:

  • CT Scan
  • MRI
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan)
  • Intraoperative MRI
  • Histopathological examination

A brain tumor is a collection, or mass, of abnormal cells in the brain. The cell grows into a tumor when a cell divides rapidly and its internal mechanism is damaged. A brain tumor can be primary or secondary depending upon its place of origin. A primary brain tumor begins in the brain while a secondary tumor starts elsewhere in the body and sends cancerous cells to the brain, causing secondary or metastatic brain tumor. Brain tumors can be either malignant (with cancer cells) or benign (without cancer cells).

Treatments:

Even though the treatments may vary according to whether it is primary, metastatic, benign and cancerous and the most common treatment options are surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. They can be suggested alone/various combinations. For malignant, residual & recurrent tumors, chemotherapy and radiation are used. The best method is chosen according to various factors. Every type of surgery and therapy has it's own risks and complications.

Surgery:

As recommended medically, complete or nearly complete surgical removal of the tumor will give the best results. This is challenge to the neurosurgeon to remove as much tumor as possible. It should be done very carefully without doing any injury to the brain tissue. The brain tissue is very important for a patient’s neurological function. Craniotomy is the traditional method to remove the tumor. It is done by accessing the tumor by opening the skull. Other common procedure is the Stereotactic biopsy. A small operation is done as a diagnostic procedure. During this procedure, the doctor accesses the sample tissue through a hole made in the skull. The tissue obtained is taken for diagnosis. This procedure may sometimes be performed before craniotomy surgery.

Computerised devices such as surgical navigation systems have been introduced later during 1990s. Such systems help the surgeon to locate and precisely operate the tumors. As a result, the complications were reduced and more of the tumor could be removed. Surgical navigation systems also allowed previously inoperable tumors to be removed with minimal risks and complications. Another important technique that may be more beneficial to the patients with tumors that are large, dominant-hemisphere gliomas and affecting the language function.

Other surgical procedure may include:

•           Ventriculoperatoneal shunt as adjuvant or as aid in main surgical procedure

•           Radiation Therapy- The radiation therapy can kill abnormal brain cells and cancer cells to shrink the tumors. X-rays of high energy are used for the procedure. Radiation therapy is used when the surgery becomes ineffective to treat certain kinds of tumors. Some of the common therapies include are:

o          Chemotherapy

o          Proton Beam Treatment

o          Gamma knife radiosurgery

o          Standard external beam radiotherapy

o          Stereotactic radiosurgery



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