Epilepsy Surgery

Epilepsy-Surgery

In some cases of epilepsy, surgery is performed to control the seizures that are not manageable with medications. Although various anti-epileptic drugs are available but sometimes all the drugs remain ineffective in controlling the seizures. Also, sometimes the cause of epilepsy can only be treated by surgery. So in all these cases, surgery becomes inevitable to provide quality and fear free life to the patient. There are many types of epilepsy surgery and the choice depends upon type, severity and originating point of epilepsy. The main forms of surgery are:

  • Intra-operative Monitoring: In this technique, a small incision is created in the scalp to remove a piece of bone along with dura. Now catheter and other specialised instruments are inserted into it. During pre-operative evaluation, the actual size, location and type of seizure are analysed. This greatly helps to completely remove the damaged part during surgery. After the completion of surgery, the bone and dura are again fixed into their place and stitches are applied to the scalp.

  • Amygdalohippocampactomy: This is one of the most successful and relatively easier procedures that are performed to treat Mesial Temporal Sclerosis with consistent results.

  • Multiple subpial transections: This technique is employed in situations where it seems to be impossible to remove the damaged part causing seizures. A series of cuts are made around the damaged part in an attempt to separate the seizure causing part from the surrounding area. Thus the movement of seizure across the brain is stopped.

  • Corpus callosotomy: This method aims at dividing the corpus callosum into two parts i.e., hemisphere. The part containing the seizures is separated from the other part. This helps in controlling the spread of seizure into other part of the brain and thus reduces the severity of the seizure.

  • Hemispherectomy: It is a major surgery that involves the removal of cortex (outer covering) of one of the hemisphere to limit the spread of seizures. This is done in conditions where one-half of the brain is damaged.